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Are Women People? An appreciation of Alice Duer Miller

Article by Sarah Salway

Father, what is a legislature?
A representative body elected by the people of the state.
Are women people?
No, my son. Criminals, lunatics and women are not people.
(A.D.M, 1915)

My first novel, Something Beginning With, begins with the dedication: ‘To Alice, with respect’. It always makes me happy when people ask who Alice is because I get to talk about the inspiration of much of my writing, the American writer Alice Duer Miller.

She’s one of those writers whose words are so alive that it doesn’t matter that she died some twenty years before I was born. I still find myself picking up one of her poems or books and wanting to reply. The first book of hers I read was lying on a shelf in a holiday house we rented the summer of the eclipse. Forsaking all others is a novel in verse first published in 1930, and although the dusty cover did not look promising, inside was a different matter. It uses a playful, almost modern structure in its use of fragmentation and different forms for the different voices to tell the story of an illicit affair and the resulting heartbreak for all parties. When I finished it, I knew I had found the challenge I wanted for my MA project – a series of linked short stories that created a much bigger picture than the whole, just as Alice Duer Miller had achieved with her poems.

But one of my stories grew until it transformed itself into a novel, as I’m sure no story belonging to Alice Duer Miller would have dared to do. As one of the only two women (along with Dorothy Parker) who belonged to the Algonquin Round Table in the 1920s and 30s, she was known equally for both her sharp tongue and love of fun. ‘They’re not exactly ill bred, and they’re not exactly well bred,’ she apparently said about some acquaintances. ‘They are the sort of people who keep a parrot.’

This quirky humour seeps into her writing, and is particularly visible in her suffrage poems. From 1914-1917, she had a weekly column called ‘Are Women People?’ in the left wing New York Tribune. She took the arguments used against women’s suffrage and turned them round until they made no sense at all. Her poems and short pieces are extremely funny, and I like to imagine, completely infuriated the people she poked fun at.

Some were persona poems. ‘Representation’ begins with an epitaph quoting Vice-President Marshall’s comment: ‘My wife is against suffrage, and that settles me’, and continues:

My wife dislikes the income tax,
And so I cannot pay it;
She thinks that golf all interest lacks,
So now I never play it…

Bullet points, mimicking the official language of the anti-suffrage movement, were another form that worked well for her. Her list poems, which include ‘Why we oppose pockets for women’ and ‘Why children should not go to school’, are as biting as any modern satirical journalism. And in her reversals of gender stereotypes, she spoofed the male legislators with versions of their own arguments:

Why we Oppose Votes for Men

1. Because man’s place is in the armory.

2. Because no really manly man wants to settle any question otherwise than by fighting about it.

3. Because if men should adopt peaceable methods women will no longer look up to them.

4. Because men will lose their charm if they step out of their natural sphere and interest themselves in other matters than feats of arms, uniforms and drums.

5. Because men are too emotional to vote. Their conduct at baseball games and political conventions shows this, while their innate tendency to appeal to force renders them particularly unfit for the task of government.

Ouch for that last point. Every week, Alice proved that she could make her point cuttingly when she wanted, and she wasn’t afraid of anyone. When one man publicly stated that some teenage girls who had ‘gone astray’ enjoyed sex with the men who exploited them, she wrote a sonnet which led to even his family rebelling against him. Through the Tribune, Alice was reaching a weekly audience of over 100,000, and her poems became popular rallying calls. Their mixture of regular form, rhythm and humour must have made them enjoyable to have heard read at suffrage rallies. I can imagine this one, in particular, going down well – it’s a wonderful parody of Kipling’s ‘If’ (probably no one present then needed reminding of his last line – And — which is more — you’ll be a Man, my son!):

Many Men to Any Woman

If you have beauty, charm, refinement, and tact,
If you can prove that should I set you free,
You would not contemplate the smallest act
That might annoy or interfere with me.
If you can show that women will abide
by the best standards of their womanhood-
(And I must be the person to decide
What in a woman is the highest good);
If you display efficiency supreme
In philanthropic work devoid of pay;
If you can show a clearly thought- out scheme
For bringing the millennium in a day:
Why then, dear lady, at some time remote,
I might consider giving you the vote.

For Alice Duer Miller, the causes of feminism and the suffrage movement were always personal. Although she’d been born into a wealthy New York family and had a formal debut into society, her father lost all his money in a bank crisis. When she took up her place studying mathematics and astronomy at Barnard College in 1895, she had to overcome both a lack of funding and social disapproval. In fact, Mrs Astor visited her mother to disapprove the minute she heard the news, and exclaimed: ‘What a pity, that lovely girl going to college’.

She paid her way through college by writing short stories and poems, but the subject she was studying, mathematics, remained her true love. She writes about creeping out of parties to escape to Columbia University’s Observatory where she worked through the night still dressed in her ball gown. How painful it must have been then when she had to finally obey the rules of the time and give up her college research when she got married. Perhaps it’s not surprising that when she went back to address the students at Barnard many years later, she told them: ‘Never take your college education for granted. People whom you have never known broke their hearts that you might have it.’

After her marriage, she went with her husband to live in Costa Rica and started her full-time writing career, coming back to live in America in 1903 and rising to prominence in 1915 when her novel, Come out of the Kitchen, became a best-seller. She was always an active feminist; as well as writing her column, she was Chair of the Committee on resolutions of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, founder and first President of the Women’s City Club of New York (a vehicle for affecting public policy in NYC), lifetime member of Heterodoxy (a feminist group in Greenwich Village), and Trustee of Barnard College.

The second collection of her newspaper columns was called, more encouragingly, Women are People. But her writing career was much wider than journalism. She wrote more than twenty novels, while finding time to attend baseball matches regularly with Ethel Barrymore (who she said could shout beautifully). In the 1920’s she was wooed by Sam Goldwyn to move to Hollywood to write for first of all silent films and then ‘the talkies’. During this time, she worked with Jerome Kern, Ginger Rogers and Fred Astaire, and lived next door to Cecil Beaton.

She was ‘full of the devil’ and ‘a cross between Jane Austen and Henry James,’ according to her contemporary reviewers, but maybe she was just too funny, too interested in domestic relationships, to be taken seriously enough to have a place in the literary canon. Or maybe she was too successful. The White Cliffs (1940), her novel in verse about the love between an American woman and a British soldier, sold over 700,000 copies world wide, was made into a Hollywood film, and inspired one bookseller to hang up a large notice in his shop: ‘Do not be put off from buying this book by the fact it is in verse.’ However, despite having her name as Associate Editor of The New Yorker, one reviewer of the time admitted that it was ‘difficult for her contemporaries to believe that she is an important artist.’

What Alice Duer Miller’s reaction was to any of this isn’t recorded, but I doubt she spent much time worrying about what people thought of her. Because she wasn’t the type to whine or publicly complain, few people realised that at the time she was writing her pieces for the suffrage moment, she had been financially supporting her husband and their household through her writing for more than ten years, something he admits in his memoir of their marriage, All Our Lives.

She was a great believer in writing to find out what she thought. Her favourite fairytale, apparently, was Cinderella. She called it the ultimate success story, and re-writing it was one of the demands she insisted on when she moved to Hollywood, to the apparent surprise of Sam Goldwyn who had thought that, as a suffragist, she would want to write something more ‘worthy’. However Alice believed that Cinderella had all the elements – her beloved mathematical mix – of the perfect story, not least because at the end, the heroine had triumphed not just over adversity, but over convention.

Triumphing over both difficulties and convention was something she knew all about. ‘Everyone who’s worth anything begins life again somewhere between thirty-five and fifty,’ she wrote, ‘begins it destitute in some important respect.’

Alice Duer Miller died in New York in 1942.

Sarah is a short story writer and novelist. Her third novel, Getting the Picture, will come out with Ballantines in Summer 2009. She spent part of her summer at the Tiny Circus arts project in Iowa, and is about to start a garden history course. She blogs at

19 comments on “Are Women People? An appreciation of Alice Duer Miller

  1. kirstyjane
    October 2, 2008

    What a wonderful appreciation. I must read these poems post-haste!

    Oddly, I know the time and place of which you speak quite well (being a Thurber fan) and yet Alice Duer Miller doesn’t crop up very much in all the literature and the mythology around the Algonquin circle. Perhaps she was too uncomfortably feminist, who knows. It does often seem to my cynical eye that women writers of that period were deemed and are still deemed acceptable as long as they weren’t *too* feminist; you mentioned Dorothy Parker (whom I dislike, too much self loathing and snobbery for me) and the Mitford sisters also spring to mind. It seems that bitchiness is seen as a desirable quality when it comes to women authors. Whereas Alice Duer Miller’s work seems to be rooted in solidarity, which is possibly more unsettling.

  2. Trilby
    October 2, 2008

    Many thanks for a fascinating piece, Sarah. Miller’s is a name I’ve come across now and then over the years, but I’ve never spent time getting to know her writing. That shall now change!

  3. Linda
    October 2, 2008

    What an interesting piece. I’m embarrassed to admit that I’ve never heard of Alice Duer Miller, and yet I consider myself fairly well-read and informed about the suffrage movement. I love the quote at the beginning regarding the description of a legislature.

  4. Lisa
    October 2, 2008

    Thank you for this article, Sarah. Like Linda I’d never heard of ADM and I’m so glad you’ve alerted me to her brilliance. She’s an inspiration. And pretty damn funny too!

  5. Leena
    October 2, 2008

    What an excellent post! Like Linda, I consider myself fairly well informed about the suffrage movement, but I’d never heard of Miller either. I found this overview absolutely engrossing, and I must seek out her work now…

  6. Sarah Salway
    October 2, 2008

    Aw thanks all. It’s funny how she seems to have disappeared, and yet she was definitely around in all the key places at the time. When ‘White Cliffs’ came out it was recorded for the radio with a full orchestra, and the recording had to be stopped because the lead violinist was crying too hard to carry on. See, I am a true ADM buff – her life’s full of the type of fascinating tit-bits I love. I’m definitely going to write more about her!

  7. Nik
    October 2, 2008

    She sounds absolutely terrific. What an interesting article, Sarah, thanks.


  8. Amy
    October 2, 2008

    Thank you so much for this article. It was absolute amazing – best thing I’ve read on Vulpes so far.

  9. Jackie
    October 3, 2008

    What a terrific piece! I was spellbound reading about such a fascinating person. I’ve heard of “The White Cliffs” but knew nothing of the author, so it was great to learn about how talented she was, and so multifaceted. The excerpt about why men shouldn’t get the vote is very funny, I like how she uses humor to get her points across. That really makes me want to read some of her work.
    Along with the piece being so well written, Ms. Salway, you also did a great job with the pics & layout, making it quite pleasant all around. Thanks!

  10. Moira
    October 3, 2008

    I hang my head in shame and admit that I have barely heard of this extraordinary lady (‘The White Cliffs’ is known to me, but I couldn’t have named the author). I’m very grateful to you for introducing her to me, Sarah.

  11. Tania Hershman
    October 3, 2008

    Gosh, that is just fascinating, thank you Sarah. I am a great fan of Dorothy Parker – why is it that her name endures whereas I had never heard of ADM? She sounds like she was a superstar in her time, thank you for reawakening interest in her. I am delighted to hear that she was a writer who loved mathematics, a kindred spirit! I particularly liked what you said, that “She was a great believer in writing to find out what she thought. ” I often feel this way about my own writing. Where can I read her short stories?

  12. mary chapman
    November 28, 2009

    I have published an essay on Alice Duer Miller in American Literary History (2006) which you might be interested in reading. It focuses on her *Are Women People* column and her practice of quoting/imitating/parodying male speech. Also, forthcoming from Edwin Mellen Press is a bio-bibliography of Alice Duer Miller by Patrick Coyne.

  13. Fionna Vail
    December 11, 2009

    do you know where a copy of the audio may be purchased or downloaded

  14. Fionna Vail
    December 11, 2009

    do you know where an audio copy of Alice Duer Miller’s White Cliffs may be purchased or downloaded

  15. Sarah Salway
    August 8, 2010

    Hello Fiona, I’m not aware of any audio copies, but hopefully others may prove me wrong.
    And thanks for the heads up about the Patrick Coyne book, Mary, as well as your essay.

  16. mary chapman
    August 8, 2010

    Readers interested in suffrage literature more generally may be interested in my forthcoming anthology of American suffrage literature, which includes lots of witty material including poems by Alice Duer Miller, valentines sent by the National Woman’s Party to President Woodrow Wilson, satirical monologues, autobiographies, fiction, drama and more poetry. *Treacherous Texts: American Suffrage literature 1846-1946* will be out in the spring from Rutgers UP. It will be listed on the website/catalogue for Rutgers this fall.
    And the film *Iron-Jawed Angels* (about the National Woman’s Party) features suffragists using techniques (like quoting the President) which Miller inspired!

  17. Pingback: Are Women People? – SARAH SALWAY

  18. William T Johnson
    May 4, 2019

    I came to her – sort of as a little boy – when my Aunt Fern gave me a copy of Cinderella, perhaps I was 7 or 8? AND I wish I had kept it – but I finally tracked it all down, and then began to read about Miller herself. Fascinating! Now I have to – OF COURSE! – read more of her own stuff!

  19. Pingback: Against the Times: A Suffragist and Novelist, Conquering Film-Making Title By Title – Women, Technology, and Film Adaptation

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This entry was posted on October 2, 2008 by in Special Features, Thursday Soapbox and tagged , , .



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