Vulpes Libris

A collective of bibliophiles talking about books. Book Fox (vulpes libris): small bibliovorous mammal of overactive imagination and uncommonly large bookshop expenses. Habitat: anywhere the rustle of pages can be heard.

“Often rebuked …” by Emily Brontë?

A Question of Attribution

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Often rebuked, yet always back returning
To those first feelings that were born with me,
And leaving busy chase of wealth and learning
For idle dreams of things which cannot be:

To-day, I will seek not the shadowy region;
Its unsustaining vastness waxes drear;
And visions rising, legion after legion,
Bring the unreal world too strangely near.

I’ll walk, but not in old heroic traces,
And not in paths of high morality,
And not among the half-distinguished faces,
The clouded forms of long-past history.

I’ll walk where my own nature would be leading:
It vexes me to choose another guide:
Where the grey flocks in ferny glens are feeding;
Where the wild wind blows on the mountain side.

What have those lonely mountains worth revealing?
More glory and more grief than I can tell:
The earth that wakes one human heart to feeling
Can centre both the worlds of Heaven and Hell.

When, in 1846, the Brontë sisters self-published a selection of their poetry under the title Poems by Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell, the poem usually referred to simply as Stanzas was not amongst them.  It was not until 1850 – nearly two years after Emily’s death – that it appeared, along with sixteen other previously unpublished poems, in a new edition of Wuthering Heights and Agnes Grey edited by Charlotte.

While Charlotte claimed categorically that Stanzas was written by Emily, there are reasons to question that attribution, not least the fact it is the only ‘new’ poem in the 1850 collection for which there is no known manuscript.  The authorship of Stanzas has been the subject of debate for many years – from C W Hatfield, editor of The Complete Poems of Emily Jane Brontë in the 1940s, to Janet Gezari in 2008 (Last Things: Emily Brontë’s Poems, OUP) but any examination of the debate first requires a little back story.

Charlotte took it upon herself to reshape her sisters’ public image shortly after they died – Emily in 1848 and Anne six months later in 1849. Sensitive to all criticism of her family, and especially to accusation of coarseness, she wrote the now famous Editor’s Preface to the 1850 edition of Wuthering Heights, portraying Emily as a ‘homebred country girl’ who was ‘stronger than a man, simpler than a child’.  It was an attempt to explain to a shocked public how a single woman, the daughter of a country vicar, raised in a remote moorland parsonage could have written anything as powerful, perverse and disturbing as the story of Catherine and Heathcliff and their mutually destructive passions.  She was trying to dispel suggestions that Emily was in any way odd or different, and she largely succeeded, but she was seriously hampered by the fact that Emily was slightly odd – as were they all to a greater or lesser extent, for how could they not be?

They spent their childhoods immersed in their make-believe worlds, exhaustively chronicled in minute writing in the tiny books they made themselves.  For years, they almost literally lived in their fantasy lands of Angria and Gondal and Emily, in particular, seemed  unwilling to leave ‘the shadowy region’ even as an adult.  As she went about her everyday life at the Parsonage, part of her brain was in Gondal, as evidenced by the brief  ‘diary pages’ she and Anne wrote every  four years, where the mundane workaday world is mentioned alongside the latest developments in Gondal, as if both were equally real.

We know that Charlotte was not above rewriting Emily’s poems, either; a  comparison of the original manuscript versions and the ‘final’ versions as published in 1850 is clear evidence of that – but in fairness, many of the alterations were necessary to avoid confusion, because roughly half of Emily’s poems were written as part of the Gondal epic and contain references to characters, places and plotlines that would have been puzzling to anyone other than the siblings themselves.

So, we have a powerful poem in which Emily appears to be attempting to rejoin the real, natural world and abandon ‘idle dreams of things that cannot be’.  It’s written in iambic pentameter.  One of the keystones of the ‘Charlotte wrote it’ hypothesis is that Emily didn’t write many poems using the classic ‘di-dum, di-dum, di-dum, di-dum,di-dum’ rhythm – whereas Charlotte did.  This is true, but in itself proves nothing, and rather ignores the fact one of Emily’s most famous poems – R Alcona to J Brenzaida: ‘Cold in the Earth’ – is also written in iambic pentameter, howbeit a creatively modified one.

Slightly more telling is the fact that it makes extensive use of ‘feminine’ line endings – ie: lines that finish  with an unstressed syllable – which is typical of Charlotte, but largely absent from Emily’s poems.

The absence of an ‘original’ is also, of course, quite suggestive – especially as the other 16 poems in the 1850 edition were taken from the same manuscript book, but for people familiar with the poems of both of the  sisters, the most tantalizing ‘clue’ is that the first three stanzas in particular don’t actually SOUND like Emily.  The sentiment expressed in it is not a new one  – she covered similar ground in Shall Earth No More Inspire Thee, but the first three verses of Stanzas read much more like Charlotte.

To me, immersed as I am in the Brontës’ poems, the change of ‘voice’ seems quite distinct, leading me to think that two hands were substantially involved in the writing of the poem.  My suspicion is that Charlotte found the last two verses amongst the assorted fragments in Emily’s belongings, saw the potential, and worked with them.  After all, the woman who added eight lines of her own to The Visionary would scarcely baulk at adding twelve to an unknown fragment.

The major argument against Charlotte having written it either completely, substantially or in part is that it’s a fine poem.  And Charlotte, although by no means a bad poet, never reached the lyrical heights of either Emily or Anne.

I’ll leave the last word with Stevie Davies, from my much loved, battered and coffee-stained 1976 Carcanet Press edition of  The Bronte Sisters – Selected Poems:

Some doubt has existed as to the authorship of this poem.  Hatfield attributes it to Charlotte Brontë, attempting to restructure her dead sister’s image along more conventionally acceptable lines.  If so, it is Charlotte Brontë’s finest poem.

You decide …

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6 comments on ““Often rebuked …” by Emily Brontë?

  1. Hilary
    June 20, 2012

    What a fascinating poetic conundrum! I do so look forward to your excursions into Bronte-land, Moira – I know so little of the detail, and really MUST sit down and read the Juliet Barker biography that sits on my bookshelves and reproaches me.

    And I love this poem, which is a new discovery for me!

    Thank you for a lovely contribution to Poetry Week.

  2. kirstyjane
    June 20, 2012

    This is totally fascinating. Like Hilary, I really enjoy your Bronte pieces — although I have nothing of interest to add, as my last real engagement with any Bronte was playing Emily (badly) in a school play. Yeah, I should really fix that… In the meantime, thank you very much comrade Moira for this intriguing post.

  3. annebrooke
    June 20, 2012

    Wonderful stuff, Moira – really made me think! :)

  4. Jackie
    June 21, 2012

    Considering what an isolated childhood my sister & I had, it was nothing compared to the Bronte sisters, but it does make me understand how one can invent another world & not want to leave it. I think Emily cared less what people thought than Charlotte did, it’s unfortunate that Charlotte felt the need to give her sister’s reputation a makeover.
    Whoever wrote the poem, the last 2 stanzas are the most sparkling, there’s a heartbreaking wildness to them. It reminds of when Catherine compared her feelings for Heathcliff to the rocks & the earth.
    And the photo that you paired with the poem is simply splendid!

  5. Moira
    June 22, 2012

    Thank you all. And thank you Jackie for the compliment on the photo. I took it a couple of years ago on my way back from Penrith Station after a day out. I saw the light from the setting sun hitting the fellside, screeched to a halt on the A66, leapt out and grabbed the shot just before it went behind a cloud … ignoring the wildly honking horns of the cars swerving past me …

    You’re absolutely right, of course, Emily didn’t apparently give a toss what people thought about her – but Charlotte was completely screwed up about it. It’s possible that Charlotte not only destroyed the manuscript Emily’s second novel but also all Emily and Anne’s ‘Gondal’ books … Although either Emily or Anne could have done the deed themselves. All we know about the Gondal ‘epic’ is what we can piece together from the poems – which is pretty confusing and frustrating, especially as Heathcliff seems to have his roots in there somewhere.

  6. Pingback: Stanza | Malvern Mashal

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Acknowledgment

  • (The header image is from Aesop's Fables, illustrated by Francis Barlow (1666), and appears courtesy of the Digital and Multimedia Center at the Michigan State University Libraries.)
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